Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow control of applications or external devices solely by brain activity, measured by different neuroimages techniques, e.g., EEG or fNIRS. Some users are unable to modulate their brain activity sufficiently to control a BCI. Most of the studies have focused on improving BCI performance accuracy through advances in signal processing and BCI protocol modification. However, some research suggests that individual differences in cognitive, psychological, and physiological factors may modify BCI performance. The results of our previous studies show that factors such as attention, motivation , temperament , imagery skills, or movement experiences  can significantly affect the effectiveness of brain-computer communication. Consequently, we would like to discuss these findings' implications on the design of future BCIs and po ssibly new research directions.
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